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IDC International Journal

July 2017

Dear Readers,

After the long months of summer at last we have the rains for our company. This year’s summer was one of the longest and toughest. There were parts of India and the world where people had to battle the heat waves. As I keep on traveling across India, I meet people from various parts of this nation. Even those parts of India that never had a prolonged summer are experiencing severity of this season for the last few years. I was not shocked to see the length and the magnitude of summer this year, but yes, I must say that I was forced to think about it. Are we as humans reaching the end? This was the question that kept on haunting in my mind. Is the prolonged summer a signal of that end that we are going to reach shortly? As humans we have only harnessed nature for our benefits. We had never turned to nature to see if she was able to replenish the hollows that we have created because of our greed. Today the time has come when nature is unable to replenish herself and we are suffering for that. We, humans are the most intelligent specie on this planet (or probably in the universe). But we seem to forget that from time to time. If we are the most intelligent, most superior among all species, then we should also behave like one. We have to take care of nature, the environment and the other species. Unfortunately, we were so busy fulfilling our needs, demands and greed that we forgot about our superiority and the type of the behavior that was expected from us. The result is what all of us can see. We are left with a world that has only one season today and that is the summer. This is enough proof about the fact that we had not taken care of the nature and now we are getting stuck in a dark tunnel. With the arrival of the monsoon we will start to get the torrential rains and then for one more year we will forget the fact that we had not done enough for the planet. Why to misuse one more year? Let’s plant trees. You don’t have to do much. Just plant one sapling and watch it grow. Each one, plant one. The problems will be taken care of.

On that note, I present to you one more issue of The IDC. It’s the result of hard work for weeks and months. When we see your satisfied expressions, we get paid for our hard work.

Best regards,

Dr. Aamarpali Roy,

April 2017

Dear Readers/ Followers/ Well Wishers,

This is April and we are back to you with an issue of IDC. It is something that has become a norm in our lives for the past few years. In fact, I shall go one step forward and say that the significance of April is that in this month we will get an issue of IDC. We will get introduced to some more thoughts and works belonging to a scholastic level. We shall come across some new scholars. We shall spend time reading the articles written in IDC. That’s April and its significance for us. However, I must mention that no journal can run without the readers. The readers are the lives of the journals. Today April means a new issue of IDC to all of us and that has been possible because of all of you. But as you wait eagerly as readers to get an issue of IDC, similarly scholars whose writings get published also wait for your thoughts and reactions about their work. Thus, we have created a world in IDC where all of us we eagerly wait for each other, we wait for a new issue of IDC.

Just the way, April means a new issue of IDC; it also marks the beginning of a new financial year with new targets and new hopes, aspirations, dreams and goals. April marks the beginning of the New Year in many parts of India. So let me take this opportunity to wish you a happy new year to those for whom a new year is going to commence or has already commenced by the time you get your issue of IDC in your hands. Let us pray to the Almighty so that this New Year brings new levels of energy, spirit, success and peace to all of us. May this be one of the most fascinating and adventurous years of our lives.

To those who are professionals April signifies new targets and goals in the office. Throughout the year you will run after these new targets and goals. Some of you will reach them. Some of you will not reach them. That is how life is. Those of you who will reach the new targets and goals will relish the year and it will go down in your memory as special. Those who will fail to reach the new targets and goals will try to forget this year as soon as possible. This is how life is. I sound repetitive but this is how life is. The question is that how many of us try to get ourselves readied before getting into the battles. Probably not too many of us. We are forced to move with the speed of life and get going with the assignments assigned to us. But that is not how these are to be tackled. It is the time of the year when we should slow the speed and get ourselves readied first. Then we should get going with our new set of targets and goals. At times please slow down the pace of your life and see the change in you.
To your success.

Thanks and regards.
Dr. Aamarpali Roy,

January 2017

Dear Readers/ Followers/ Well Wishers,

Let me take this opportunity from the IDC family to wish you all a very happy and prosperous new year. Let this be a great 2017. On that note, I am indeed pleased to introduce the new issue of the IDC to you. Its been moths of hard work and then this issue became a reality. What a pleasure it is to go through this issue. All the tears, the pains of sacrifices, the difficulties, and the memories of the trying times … all vanish when we start to receive the accolades for this issue of the IDC. My team members are the best in the world and I am blessed to have them. I learn from them the levels of dedication, the perseverance and determination levels that are needed to be maintained. Thanks to the reviewers, scholars and writers who contributed with their writings, precious views and smart innovative ideas. The IDC family is a great and united one. We are united for the cause of education and producing a platform where thinkers, scholars and writers can express themselves.

January is the month of happiness around the world as it signifies the commencement of a new year, a new series of aspirations and hopes. But let us also remember that this is the month that also signifies the publications of academic results in innumerable universities, institutes, schools and colleges. This is a very critical time of the year as publications of academic results means happiness for some and serious unhappiness for some others. Let us for the time being think about those for whom publications of results means unhappiness. Being unsuccessful once does not mean the end of the world. There have a lot of instances where a student after being unsuccessful went ahead to conquer victory and emerge as a champion. Rabindranath Tagore, Sachin Tendulkar, Diego Maradona, Thomas Edison, Mark Zuckerberg, Bill gates are just a few names in that list. These personalities were not university toppers. Still they were the best in what they were doing. They were so ahead of others that they have raised the standards for those university toppers who were operating in their fields. That’s really amazing. Isn’t it? So let us not be ruthless while criticizing the students who come out of the academic world as failures. Criticism should be like gentle rain. It is meant to nourish you from within the roots and not demolish you by uprooting yourself. We need to be ultra-careful in our dealings with these students who come out as unsuccessful for our main aim should be to get them motivated, to inspire them to try to cross the hurdles with greater conviction, to help them focus again and to let them be who they are. Just one failure does not mean the end of the world.

Let this be the January that will mark the beginning of criticism that is like gentle rain.

Thanks and regards.
Dr. Aamarpali Roy,

October 2016

Dear Readers/ Followers and Well-wishers,

This is a wonderful time of the year in India. With the onset of the festive season, we celebrate Navaratri, Durga Puja, Lakshmi Puja, Kali Puja, Diwali, Chhat Puja and Bhaiya Duj. All these festivals are not celebrated in every part of the country with equal granger. But still they have developed acceptance almost everywhere. These festivals are an opportunity for us to remind ourselves to stay united and enjoy together. For centuries ours have been a nation that has believed in staying and being together. In fact it is India that has taught the world the great concept of unity in diversity. It is India that has taught the world that moments of glory and enjoyment are the best when they are enjoyed together.

But in such wonderful time of the year we also had the terror attacks on our army personnel in Uri. This led to the surgical strikes across the LOC. Let us, during all these enjoyments not forget those who lost their lives in these terror attacks. Let us not forget the family members of those who laid down their lives in the service of the nation. May the Almighty give them strength to fight against this situation and come out stronger

Whenever I come across news of terror attacks like this, I wish we could create a world without terror and fundamentalism. At least let us hope to create a world where no one will have to face the pain of losing a near and dear one due to terror attacks.

But life is not dark always. So on that note let me also wish you a great festive season. The festivals that we celebrate during this time of the year teach us a lot of things. As I said earlier that these festivals have taught us to stay and enjoy together, similarly, they have also taught us to respond together. The purpose of all sorts of unity is to form a collective response and when I say a “collective response”, I mean a response that is generated together. We have been able to maintain the unity of our nation to a huge extent because we had, as a nation, always responded together to anything that needed a response from our side. So this festive season let us all stay together and enjoy together. Let us bring out the best from ourselves. Let us all start to work towards tomorrows that will be better than all yesterdays that are gone. It is time to shine and sparkle. It is time to dream and hope.

Once again, I wish all of you a great festive season ahead.

Thanks and regards,

Dr. Aamarpali Roy,


July 2016

My dear readers,

We have one more issue of The IDC in our hands … a result of the hard work put in by my entire team for the last few months. I am very relieved to see the excitement of my team members with the release of each and every issue of the journal as that says that The IDC is in safe hands. A special thanks to the authors who contributed with their writings in this issue. But as we were readying this issue, the world around us kept on bleeding. Yes, I am talking about the political and terrorist activities in Kashmir, in Syria, in Dhaka, in the Gaza strip and in other parts of the world.

I remember learning from Wilfred Garner that political science begins and ends with the state. But the way I see politics influencing and catalyzing terrorism and fundamentalism, that sort of fools me today. I am afraid to see that a lot many people today do not understand that what we see in the world are a result of hard work and sacrifices of those who laid the foundations of human civilization for generations. I am afraid to realize that a lot many do not understand that what we are today are the results of the efforts put in by our ancestors and that is for large chunks of periods. Fundamentalist thinking has endangered the lives of all in this age.

As I see the killing of people around the world, particularly the innocent ones, I am forced to think about the danger that may lie ahead of us. What has mankind achieved from the wars and battles, conflicts and collisions? What have the World Wars given us? Destructions and demolition on your side is bound to affect me some day. As humanity gets murdered in your land, we cannot relax thinking that we are safe and secured. In the words of Martin Luther King Jr. either we shall live as one or perish as individuals.

The civilization, the world, the freedom, the thoughts … all that we are enjoying today, let receive immortality from our hands. Let the process start from somewhere. I think education is the only answer to all these problems. The more we educate people, the more they will be inclined to think and understand their benefits. Terrorism and fundamentalism cannot benefit anyone. These are not answers to civilizational problems.

These are not answers to social, political and economic problems. It is essential that we, the mankind of today, master the art of releasing men from all their inequalities and injustice that they had to encounter. Through justice and establishment of brotherhood we will be able to bring in peace.


Let’s hope for a better tomorrow. Let’s create a world where a single drop of blood will not flow out of the veins.

Wishing you all great times ahead.

Thanks and regards,

April 2016

My dear readers,

This is a matter of great pleasure for me to come up with April Issue of IDC. In this context, I would like to thank my entire team who worked very hard to make this issue a reality. Also special thanks have to be given to the readers who continuously kept on inspiring us during our journey of preparing this issue of IDC. Without your support and inspiration, we would not be able to move an inch.

After a long winter, we have almost reached a summer. The meteorologists have forecasted an even more scorching summer this time. In certain parts of India we are expecting temperatures as high as 50 degrees Celsius. Incredible! But that is how life is expected to be during this summer. I was thinking why summers are slowly getting severe with every passing year. Well, I did not get an answer to this question. Instead, I got another question. What makes us believe that we should not expect such severity of nature? Have we done enough for the environment and the nature? Perhaps not. Since the commencement of the civilization we have only derived from the environment and nature.

We never stopped to think about replenishing all that we had taken away for our benefits. Slowly and gradually we have reached the phase when nature is getting revengeful. Nature wants every bit of what she has given us, back, along with a compounding rate of interest. We do not have enough funds to pay the principal, forget the interest. This is bringing us to the verge of self destruction. The most important question that is being raised everywhere today is that how we are going to save this civilization? How we are going to save ourselves.

It’s very tough to save ourselves today. We have reached almost a dead end. But as philosophers say that there cannot be any dead end in life, I too, am putting forward the same idea. I am hopeful that even now the wrath of nature can be taken care of and we can save ourselves. What we need to do is just sacrifice a little. We are used to using fire, electricity, cars that emit harmful carbon monoxide, electrical gadgets that produce a lot of heat. If we are ready to sacrifice a small percentage of the use of these things that causes pollution in some way, we will reach a stage from where we will be able to control the rate of environmental pollution.

Today we are in a stage where there seems to be no hope.There is no silver lining behind the clouds. In such a time if we are able to curb the environmental pollution to some extent, then we will feel the passion again. We will start to believe again that it can be done. No target is too steep to achieve. It’s the mind that makes the target look steep. So let us aim to create a situation from where we can look forward to control environmental pollution and take care of Mother Nature.


With warm regards,


January 2016

Since gaining independence in 1947 India has achieved so many feats. India fought four major wars in 1947, 1965, 1971 and 1999 and won all of them. India established her democracy on strong foundations and became the largest democracy in the world. India established a judicial system which is just, unbiased, free from political pressure and out of the control of the army.

India became one of the largest producers of trained doctors, technocrats, accountants, teachers, nurses, management professionals and lawyers. India became self-sufficient in food crop production through green revolution. The unity in diversity, the integrity of the nation, the sporting achievements, becoming a member of the nuclear club, producing world class cinema, setting up of some of the largest industries in the world like the tea industry, the agro based industries of Uttar Pradesh, the steel industries, maintaining political stability in the country, achieving the feat of being one of the fastest growing economies in the world, the mission to Mars … all these are not achievements that can be neglected. But still, India remains a nation which is considered as a developing economy and not a developed economy.

One of the most important reasons behind this is that education has not reached the poor who constitute the major chunk of the population. Education has reached the upper sections and the middle classes only. The benefits of education could not be made available to the poor. In India it is a fashion to blame the government and the governmental bodies for every positive thing that does not happen and every negative thing that happens. There is no point in blaming the government for everything. Even we citizens of the country are sometimes responsible for everything that could be achieved but has not been achieved.

So let us all come forward to remove these pictures of missed achievements. Let us start with education. Let us help the government in reaching education to the poorer sections of the society. Let us be within our comfort zone and teach one. We do not have to teach a thousand or a hundred. Let us target to educate one. If we reach our target that will make the difference, that will erase the gap between India being a developing economy and a developed economy.

The time has come when we can and we should adopt the philosophy of “Each one, Teach one.” Let us, all of us, take just half an hour from our daily routine or may be even less than that, just an hour from our weekly routine. Let us use this time for teaching a poor around us. It is time that we ourselves take up the baton of converting India into a developed economy by creation of educated human resources through investment of a negligible time from our daily/ weekly routine. This is the need of the hour. Let us all of us for the sake of creation of a modern, vibrating, smart and educated India, adopt the philosophy of “Each One, Teach One.”


The view is amazing from the top

October 2015

The current period may pass as a vital period in the history of this country. After gaining independence in 1947, India had to struggle through various ups and downs to establish herself. It was through a green revolution, three wars and one conflict in Kargil, launching of the two ‘Chandrayan’ (moon exploration) Projects, launching ‘Mangalayan’ - the mission to mars, the nationalisation of the commercial banks, the opening up of the economy in the early 1990s, continuous blood shedding in Kashmir and the North-East for the last so many years, that the country has continuously strived to establish itself as a developing economy. But for how long is it feasible for this nation to remain a developing economy? Particularly if that nation is the world’s second most populated country, the largest democracy and the youngest nation in terms of percentage of its population below the age of thirty five years. How long is it possible for a nation that has the largest pool of trained manpower in the world, in the form of world class doctors, technocrats, lawyers, accountants and teachers to remain as such? Probably it is not feasible for too long. India is destined to emerge as a global superpower.

A phase would be reached in the history of this great nation when the world could no longer afford to see India as a pygmy of a nation. From here starts the journey of the country towards becoming a global power of reckoning. India had already become a part of the nuclear club. Perhaps a seat in the Security Council of the United Nations does not look like an outlandish dream. With a robust education sector, one of the fastest growing economies in the world, with appropriate focus on research and development, with rise of a strong middle class with high purchasing power, with introduction of the indigenously built missiles, rockets, rocket launchers, missile carriers, arms and ammunitions for the fourth largest armed force in the world, it can truly be said that India is well on her way towards becoming a global superpower.

But the question that took birth in my mind in this context was what role is expected from us, from each and every person in our society.

There is definitely a role each one of us has to play. Whatever profession we are in, we will have to perform our job to the best of our capabilities. India cannot become a global superpower without the contribution from her each and every citizen. Not all are required to go to the border and lay down their lives as soldiers defending it. Instead, let us all strive harder in whatever sphere of life we work in. If a teacher starts to think that he/ she should teach well in his/ her classes or else the nation suffers, we progress as a country. If sweepers start to think that they should perform their duties well or else development will be hindered, the country achieves much. If a driver while driving rashly on the roads starts to think that such driving is detrimental to progress of the nation, the society gains. In short, let us all perform to the best of our abilities in whatever sphere of life we find ourselves in. Let us all contribute towards the development of the nation.

I assure you all that the day is not far off when this three thousand year old civilisation will emerge as a global superpower. Yes, there will be obstacles in our way to glory but that need not deter us. The view is amazing from the top.


Wishing you all great times ahead,

Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam

July 2015

It is indeed a very difficult time for all of us. We have lost a great scientist a great teacher, a great visionary and a great thinker. Above all he was a people's Prez. A man named Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam.

He was the type of an apolitical personality who can never be forgotten, not only because of his contributions in science, technology, education, in building the nation but mainly because of the passion and inspiration that he spread across many. A true example of the popular saying "simple living, high thinking", this techno yogi was largely responsible for making India a member of the nuclear club. As a chief executive head of the state he traveled across the length and breadth of the nation to meet students, to teach them, to inspire them and keep them motivated.

One of those rare personalities who rose above petty protocols of life, Dr. A.P. J. Abdul Kalam actually made his life a lesson for all ages to come. He was responsible for igniting a million minds through his writings. He kept on inspiring people through immortal quotes and speeches..

Just the other day I was going through the newspaper which wrote about the feelings of some people after the sad demise of the great man. One wrote that President Kalam will be remembered as someone who practiced what he said unlike many politicians. In fact, I also felt the same. It was this honesty of the great man that could immediately fasten a bond with millions of people around him and across this nation. As a President of the nation also he stood beside the common people. He visited Siachen to meet the Jawans of the Indian Army to inspire them. He visited schools, colleges, universities and Chambers of Commerce throughout India. He spoke on ethics, importance of education and the need for maintaining the social bonding..

I remember my seniors in the family saying that they had lived in the age of Mahatma Gandhi. I am indeed lucky, I am fortunate that I walked in this planet when Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam was here.


Some people are sad after his demise and quite rightly so. But frankly speaking I am not. Yes, it is true that we would not be able to meet him, touch him, talk to him or see him. But great personalities like Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam do not die. They are immortal. They achieve immortality through their thinking, ideologies, teachings, preaching, talking, the way they lead their lives, the way they carried themselves when they were alive and specially by the way they thought ahead of their time.

Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam is not just a name, not just a phenomenon. Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam is a way of life. He is and will always be with us, beside us.

May his soul rest in peace!


April 2015

The American writer Theodor Seuss Geisel, widely known for his children’s books written under his pseudonym Dr. Seuss, once wrote, “The more that you read, the more things you will know. The more that you learn the more places you'll go.” Undoubtedly the secret to a successful life is information and since reading is still the best source of information available, it can give the reader a great edge and distinct advantage in life. Among the myriad advantages of reading following points are worth mentioning.

1. Improves focus and concentration: Staying with a book for a long period shuts down the mind to the outside world and immerses the reader in the text which helps to focus the mind in the subject matter that strengthens concentration power.

2. Boosts brain power:  Reading gives the brain a good work-out just like jogging does it for the cardiovascular system. Neurologists agree that reading keeps the mind sharper longer.

3. Enhances vocabulary: Reading increases one’s vocabulary more than talking or direct teaching. It also improves spelling skills and illustrates word usages.

4. Develops verbal abilities: The fervent reader being equipped with wider vocabulary and varied range of words becomes adept at better articulation of thoughts and feelings to get the point across more effectively.


5. Improves memory: When one reads there is always more time to think and comprehend. Hence, Reading helps the reader stretch the memory muscles. Many studies show, if you do not use the memory, you lose it.

6. Improves reasoning skills: Books for professionals contain arguments for or against any enunciation. It helps the reader to reason better with the knowledge gained from reading.

7. Improves imaginations: By reading a written description of an event or a place, the reader’s mind is responsible for creating that image in the head instead the image being placed in front like in television viewing. Other people’s views and opinions will help the reader expand his understanding of what is possible

8.  Reduces stress: After a stressful day, a book can easily distract the mind and relieve stress. Studies have shown that reading silently, for six minutes can slow down the heart rate and ease tension in the muscles

9.  Decreases boredom:  To get away from boredom of the daily grind it may be worthwhile to pick up a good book and read it.

10. Reading before bed helps sleep: To many reading becomes a bedtime ritual that signals to the body that it is time to wind down and go to sleep.

11.Provides a glimpse into other cultures and places:Books can expand one’s horizons to enrich the mind by unfurling the canvas about different places and cultures. The ardent traveller gets the impetus to plan his next itinerary.
In the words of Mark Twain "The man who does not read has no advantage over the man who cannot read.” Reading stimulates and at the same time relaxes the mind. Books can be teachers, mentors and inspiration for the passionate reader.   


January 2015

The word dope entered American English from the Dutch word doop meaning “thick dipping sauce” during the days of Dutch colonists of New Amsterdam, now New York City. Later, the meaning of dope extended to the practice of smoking a semi-liquid dark opium preparation. This is the root of the modern meaning of dope, a narcotic substance administered to a racehorse to affect its performance.

Following this, the verb doping further meant giving a narcotic “drug” to an athlete to unfairly boost or even worsen performance in competitive sports. Historically doping in sports, usage of some performance enhancing herbs, found mention in chariot racing in ancient Rome. Ancient Greek athletes also consumed stimulating potions to strengthen themselves.

International organisations regulating sporting competitions today, like the International Olympic Committee, have banned use of performance boosting drugs, ruling the practice unethical to ensure a level playing field for all athletes. The ban is legitimately imposed to deny a competitor using an artificial enhancer from gaining unfair advantage over others in competition.

It amounts to cheating and is against the spirit of sport. Doping in modern sports includes using anabolic steroids and stimulants that make the central nervous system to modulate mental function and behaviour. The challenge got further extended to blood doping which involves blood transfusions and injections to increase the haemoglobin content in blood stream to bring more oxygen to muscles.

Doping, in electronics, means adding a tiny impurity to an ‘intrinsic’ (pure) semiconductor like Silicon to vary its electrical conductivity. Adding impurity makes loose electrons in a semiconductor atom to move about leaving a positively charged “hole” which captures another electron from a nearby atom creating another hole. This creates a sort of movement of ‘negative electrons’ and ‘positive holes’ signifying two ways of conducting current through the semiconductor material.



The viruses, bacteria or other germs which are released deliberately and used to cause illness or death in people, animals, or plants are termed bio-weapons. These biological agents can be used as instruments of warfare and terror to produce fear and harm in humans, animals, and plants.

These are produced by biological organisms or synthesized in the labs. They are generally worse than chemical weapons. The dose required is very low, agent reproduces in the host.

These agents are invisible, silent odourless and tasteless. They are expensive to produce but easy to disperse. Biological agents can be spread through the air, through water, or in food. These agents are typically found in nature, but it is possible that they could be changed to increase their ability to cause disease, make them resistant to current medicines, or to increase their ability to be spread into the environment

Terrorists may use biological agents because they can be extremely difficult to detect and do not cause illness for several hours to several days. It is difficult to control especially if agent is contagious or forms spores. It can disable or kill person

Wash your ears with it and it is good against deafness, noises and most other ailments of ears. Wash your eyes with your own water and it cures sore eyes and strengthens the sight.

There is no effective treatment to it. It is communicable between people. Have relatively long incubation period. The microbiologists and biological safety professionals can provide with a practical assessment of the biological weapons and help manage individuals potentially exposed to a threat agent.

Organic Food

JULY 2014

Health, taste and care for nature and environment are three considerations for choosing organic over non-organic food.

The word “organic” refers to the way farmers grow and process agricultural products. Organic farming practices encourage soil and water conservation, and reduce pollution. Farmers growing organic products do not use conventional methods to fertilize or control weeds and insects. Organic products are not widely available like non-organic products.

Organic products come in variable sizes and shapes that often look physically “imperfect,” whereas non-organic product all seem to look relatively the same because non-organic products are treated with chemicals, while organic product are not.

A lot of people believe that organic products are nutritionally better than non-organic products, although research on the topic is ongoing.

Organic products contain, if any, far fewer artificial ingredients (e.g., preservatives and pesticide and/or antibiotic residues, etc.) than their non-organic counterparts.


April 2014

The naturopathy helps in curing many diseases which are not normally cured by medicine. Within man is found the substance to cure his disease. This therapy is drugless system of healing.

It has been argued that it cannot be right to push back into the body, something which the body is apparently discarding. Yet this objection ignores the principle of composing as practiced by organic gardeners. Rotting dead leaves, when dug back into the soil, provide valuable minerals and salts to nourish new plant life

Drinking one's own urine is a well-known cure for Jaundice. Ancient Greeks used urine for treatment of wounds

Drink your own water in the morning nine days together and it cures Scurvy and makes the body lightsome and cheerful (One Thousand Notable Things. ≈1820)

Wash your ears with it and it is good against deafness, noises and most other ailments of ears. Wash your eyes with your own water and it cures sore eyes and strengthens the sight.

Wash and rub your hand with it and it takes away numbness, chaps and sores and makes the joints limber. Wash any green wound with it and it is an extra ordinary good thing. It is good against piles and other sores.

It open obstructions of the reins and urinary passages, dissolves tartarous coagulations in those parts, breaks and expels stone and gravel..

Outwardly applied, it cleanses the skin and softens it by washing it therewith, especially when warm. It cleanses heals and dries up wounds made by poisonous weapons (Salmon's English Physician. 1695).

The taste of healthy urine is not very objectionable (The water of Life. By John W. Armstrong, 1981). Fresh morning urine is merely somewhat bitter and salty. Urine when taken in to the body along with water is filtered; it becomes purer and purer in the course of time. First, it cleanses, then frees from obstruction and finally rebuilds the vital organs and passages after they have been wasted by the ravages of disease. In fact it rebuilds not only the lungs, pancreas, liver, brain, heart etc., but also repairs the linings of brain and bowel and other linings.

If doctors combine urine therapy with drugs then it will be failure. The advantage of this therapy is the very fact that it costs nothing and can be used by poor and rich alike.